Ternopil Ivan Puluj National Technical University

Каф. інжинірингу машинобудівних технологій

Cutting Theory


1. Educational programs for which discipline is mandatory:

# Educational stage Broad field Major Educational program Course(s) Semester(s)
1 bachelor's 13. Механічна інженерія 131. Прикладна механіка (бакалавр) 3 6

2. The course is offered as elective for all levels of higher education and all educational programs.

3. Information about the author of the course

Full name Danylchenko Larisa Mykolaivna
Academic degree PhD
Academic title Assoc. Prof.
Link to the teacher`s page on the official website of the department
Е-mail (in the domain

4. Information about the course

Study hours structure Lectures: 36
Practical classes: 36
Laboratory classes: 0

Amount of hours for individual work: 78
ECTS credits: 4,0
Teaching language english
Form of final examination exam
Link to an electronic course on the e-learning platform of the university

5. Program of discipline

Description of academic discipline, its goals, subject of study and learning outcomes

“Cutting Theory” is the course that purpose is to increase general theoretical and practical professional levels of future specialists by understanding and appreciating the various principles of metal cutting, cutting tool materials and its wear mechanisms during the machining operations. At the end of this course the students are expected to impart the knowledge of various systems of tool geometry and derive their interrelationships; develop the relations for chip reduction coefficient, shear angle, shear strain, forces, power, specific energy and temperatures associated with orthogonal cutting; select cutting fluids, cutting tool materials and tool geometry for improving machinability and tool life.

The place of academic discipline in the structural and logical scheme of study according to the educational program

Prerequisites. List of disciplines, or knowledge and skills, possession of which students needed (training requirements) for successful discipline assimilation

"Technology of structural materials (TCM) and material science"
"Strength of Materials"
"The theory of mechanisms and machines"

Contents of the academic discipline

Lectures (titles/topics)

1. Fundamentals of metal cutting. The concepts of machining & cutting process. Classification of metal machining processes.
2. Metal cutting operations and terminology. Fundamental laws of metal cutting. Optimal cutting temperature. Deformation law.
3. Advanced metal cutting mechanics. Objective of metal cutting mechanics. Influence of the cutting speed, depth of cut and cutting feed on power partition.
4. Mechanics of machining processes: orthogonal and oblique cutting. Built up-edge and its effect in metal cutting.
5. The essential features of metal cutting. Mechanism of chip formation, types of chip. Breakers, chip thickness ratio, shear plane, the built-up edge.
6. Essentials of cutting tool geometry. Basic tool geometry components. shear plane, shear angle, shear strain. Influence of the tool angles.
7. Edge preparation. Influence on plastic deformation and generalizations. Effective rake angle, flank angle & inclination angle.
8. Kinematic surface roughness. Mechanical and thermal strain on the cutting section. Influence of the geometry of the cutting section. Shear stress in cutting.
9. Cutting tool materials. Classification of hard cutting tool materials. Tool steels, cold work steels, high speed steels. Components of cemented carbides and their properties.
10. Coating methods. Specific properties of hard material coatings. Ceramic cutting tool materials. Tool designs.
11. Cutting tools. Carbon steel tools, high speed steels. Structure, properties and composition. Tool life and performance of high speed steel tools.
12. Cutting parameters. Forces and stresses in metal cutting. Forces in cutting metals and alloys. Stresses in the tool, friction force.
13. Tool life behaviour. Determining tool life parameters. The machinability of cutting tool materials.
14. Tool wear types. Mechanisms of tool wear. Taylor’s tool life formula. Expanded Taylor’s tool life formula.
15. Cutting fluids. The functions of cutting fluids. Types of cutting fluids. Effects of the cutting fluid on the machining process. Selection of cutting fluids.
16. Heat in metal cutting. Heat in the primary shear zone. Heat at the tool/work interface. Methods of tool temperature measurement. Measured temperature distribution in tools.
17. Modeling of metal cutting. Empirical models. Review of analytical models. Mechanistic models. Finite element analysis based models.
18. Finding economical cutting parameters. Cutting parameter limits. Optimizing the cutting parameters. Planning methods and tools.

Practical classes (topics)

1. Manufacturing system and production system manufacturing processes.
2. Classification of manufacturing processes. Material removal processes.
3. Geometry of cutting tools. Geometry of single-point cutting tool. Tool-in hand system, ASA system.
4. Significance of various angles of single point cutting tools. Determination of cutting angels.
5. Orthogonal and oblique cutting. Schemas, characteristics and parameters.
6. Orthogonal rake system (ORS). Conversions between ASA and ORS systems – graphical and analytical methods, normal rake system (NRS) & relation with ORS.
7. Mechanics of chip formation. Types of chips, chip-breakers. Determination of chip reduction coefficient.
8. Continuous chips. Discontinuous chips. Serrated chips. Built-up edges chips. Types of built-up edges.
9. Shear angle, shear strain. Built up-edge and its effect in metal cutting.
10. Merchant’s analysis of metal cutting process.
11. Forces, power and specific energy in cutting. Determination of cutting force and power.
12. Cutting tool materials. Properties of tool materials. Characteristics of cutting tool materials. Indexable inserts, coated tools.
13. Cutting tools & its characteristics. Cutting tool classification. Right hand single point cutting tool.
14. Determination of cutting parameters: cutting speed, feed, depth of cut, forces acting on a cutting tool.
15. Power required in metal cutting. Specific energy. The Merchant equation.
16. Cutting fluids. Functions, characteristics and types. Selection of cutting fluids.
17. Determination of cutting temperature using analytical methods. Methods of controlling cutting temperature.
18. Machinabilty and machining economics: wear mechanisms, types of tool wear, tool life and machinability.

Laboratory classes (topics)


Learning materials and resources

1. Amstead, B.H., Ostwald P.F., Begeman M.L., Manufacturing Processes, 8th ed., Wiley, New York, 1988.
2. Bhattacharya A, Metal Cutting: Theory and Practice, New Central Book Agency, Kolkata, 2007.
3. Boothroid D.G. & Knight W.A. Fundamentals of machining and machine tools, Marcel Dekker, Newyork, 1989.
4. Manufacturing Engineering & Technology, Kalpakjian. S., Pearson Education Asia, 2003.
5. Rao P.N., Manufacturing Technology – Metal Cutting and Machine Tools, 3th edition, TMH, New Delhi, 2013.
6. Schey, J.A., Introduction to Manufacturing Processes, McGraw-Hill, NewYork, 1977.
7. Shaw, M. C., Metal Cutting Principles, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1984.
8. Trent, E. M. and P. K. Wright, Metal Cutting, 4th edition, Butterworth-Heinemann, 2000.

6. Policies and assessment process of the academic discipline

Assessment methods and rating system of learning results assessment

Students' knowledge is assessed on a 100-point scale, which is translated into a national scale ("еxcellent", "good", "satisfactory", "unsatisfactory") and the scale of the European credit transfer system (ECTS - A, B, C, D, E, FX, F) in accordance with the main criteria and indicators of the level of knowledge, identified by students as a result of written and oral tasks, defense of reports on practical work, as well as final control in the form of credit provided that the student passes all stages of current control, passing modules in the form of testing and questioning from the list of exam.

Table of assessment scores:

Assessment scale
(100 points)
(4 points)
90-100 Excellent А
82-89 Good B
75-81 C
67-74 Fair D
60-66 E
35-59 Poor FX
1-34 F
Approved by the department
(protocol №
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